What is Deforestation?Deforestation refers to the cutting, clearing, and removal of rainforest or related ecosystems into less bio-diverse ecosystems such as pasture, cropland, or plantations.
What are the causes of deforestation?
III. Oil and gas extraction
IV. Cattle ranching
V. Agriculture: Cash crops
VI. Local, National, and International factors: development, land titles, government subsidies to attract corporations into developing countries, trade agreements, civil wars, debt, lack of resources, and lack of law enforcement.
Deforestation in Borneo.
Largest rainforests worldwide listed in descending order (from largest to smallest).
- Amazon basin of South America
- Congo river basin of Central Africa
- South East Asia
- New Guinea
- Did you know that tropical rainforests, which cover 6-7% of the earth's surface, contain over half of all the plant and animal species in the world!
- Did you know that 57% of all rainforests remaining are located in the Neotropics, with 30% located in Brazil!
Between 1960 and 1990, most of the deforestation occurred globally, with an increasing trend every decade.
- Brazil has the highest annual rate of deforestation today.
- Atlantic coast of Brazil has lost 90-95% of its rainforest.
- Central America has 50% of its rainforests.
- South America has 70% of its rainforests.
- The Philippines have lost 90% of its rainforests!
- Madagascar has lost 95% of its rainforests!
- El Salvador has lost 70-85% of its rainforest due to heavy bombing during the civil war 1984-1985.
- Sumatra has 15% of its rainforests left.
- Only 6% of Central Africa's forests are protected by law.
Destructive logging in Malaysia.
Statistics on Global Rates of Rainforest Destruction:
2.4 acres (1 hectare) per second: equivalent to two football fields
149 acres (60 hectares) per minute
214,000 acres (86,000 hectares) per day: an area larger than New York City
78 million acres (31 million hectares) per year: an area larger than Poland
On average, 137 species become extinct everyday; or 50,000 each year!
*If the current rate of deforestation continues, the world's rain forests will vanish within 100 years- causing unknown effects on global climate and eliminating the majority of plant and animal species on the planet*
Small-scale deforestation in the Amazon.
What are the consequences of deforestation?
- Extinctions (loss of biodiversity of microbes (bacteria), plants, insects, animals, indigenous peoples, etc.
- Habitat fragmentation. This disturbs the animals' habitat and may force them to enter habitats which are already occupied. This can pose many problems such as territorial conflicts, homelessness (loss of habitat), lack of food availability, migration disturbances, etc.
- Soil erosion occurs when trees and plants are removed; the rain water washes the nutrients in the top soil away.
- Changes in watershed geomorphology.
- Desertification (dry, hot, arid conditions).
- Edge effects can change microclimates (small climates) which affect endemic species (native species which can only live in specific environmental and habitat conditions).
- Climate change (more carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere, thus increasing the effects of global warming).
- Pollution (ground, water and air pollution from oil extraction and mining chemicals).
Deforestation for palm oil production in Borneo.
- Loss of culture (indigenous peoples subsistence living in the rainforest). People who live in the rainforest depend on the natural environment for food, shelter, materials for cooking, clothing, etc. If the forest is cut down or if their environment becomes polluted from oil extraction and mining, they are forced to move or risk starvation and sickness.
- Displacement of people (loss of farmland, forest resources, etc).
- Social conflicts and struggles over land and natural resources.
- Conflicts over racial and ethnic rights.
- Poisoning from oil and mining waste.
- Economic uncertainty (price fluctuations and high interest rates on outstanding international loans with The World Bank and International Monetary Fund.
Oil Palm Estate and Rainforest in Malaysian Borneo.
What can we do to STOP or at least lessen the amount of deforestation and conserve our own use of natural resources such as wood, oil and gas, electricity, minerals and elements, and water? Brainstorm...here's a start:
- Always use both sides of paper when writing, drawing, photo-copying, faxing, etc.
- Recycle paper, cans, glass, and plastic.
- Read the newspaper on-line.
- Buy paper products made from recycled paper: notebook paper, paper towels, toilet paper, books, etc.
- Use pencils until they are stubs! Think of pencils as gold (you'll never lose them if you do).
- Encourage your parents, relatives, and friends to buy furniture and wood that is Certified. That means the wood was legally cut-down.
- If you buy a product and you notice they use wood chips to package it, write to the company and suggest they use another packaging material.
- Trees get cut down for cattle to graze. Instead of eating meat, think of eating other sources of protein such as fish, soy, beans, whole-wheat, and nuts.
- Buy organic fruits and vegetables. That means there are no insecticides or pesticides (poisonous chemicals) sprayed on the food. If these chemicals kill insects and pests that try and eat the vegetables, think about how harmful they can be to you and the environment.
- Instead of buying gold or diamonds, which are mined and cause environmental damage, consider jewelry that is made from materials that are not mined...such as glass.
- Encourage your parents, relatives, and friends to drive fuel efficient cars that get good gas mileage. Hybrid and bio-diesel cars get great mileage and use less or no gasoline.
- Even better, whenever possible, walk, bike, carpool or use mass transit (bus or train).
- Save electricity by turning off lights, t.v., radio, computer, etc when you are not using them.
- Save water by NOT taking baths; instead take quick showers (turning off the water while you soap up) and then turning it back on to rinse quickly.
- While washing your hands and brushing your teeth, turn off the water. You'll save gallons if you do.
- When washing the dishes or your parent's car, turn off the water while washing it with soap. Rinse quickly after washing.
- Hmmm, can you think of other ways to conserve wood, oil and gas, electricity, minerals and elements, and water, etc...?
Deforestation in Malaysian Borneo.